Course Catalog

All Philosophy Courses

PHIL 2. Philosophical Questions: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

One way of understanding philosophy is not as a set of teachings to be mastered but as the rational attempt to formulate, understand, and answer fundamental questions. This course explores some of the most basic questions, including: What is the meaning of life?  What is it to be a human person, a self?  Is human nature fundamentally good or evil?  How should we live our lives?  What is happiness? What makes a society just?  Is knowledge possible?  What is really real?  Is there a God?  Is there such a thing as free will or has the course of our lives been determined by fate, God, or biology?  (HU)

PHIL 3. (REL 3) Global Religion, Global Ethics (4)

Introduction to philosophical and religious modes of moral thinking, with attention given to ethical issues as they arise cross-culturally in and through religious traditions. The course will reference the United Nations Millennium Goals to consider family life and the role of women, social justice, the environment, and ethical ideals. (HU)

PHIL 4. Belief, Knowledge and Action: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

Through reading selected texts in philosophy, from the ancient period to the modern Enlightenment and Romantic reaction, this course will introduce students to some of the central positions concerning knowledge, reality, ethics, and justice developed in relation to their historical contexts.  A unifying theme will be the emergence and evolution of rational thought and its relation to belief, knowledge, and action. (HU)

PHIL 5. Contemporary Moral Problems: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

An examination of contemporary issues that raise questions about right and wrong, good and bad, both for individuals and for social policy, using the methods, theories, and concepts of moral philosophy. (HU)

PHIL 6. Conduct and Character: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

How should we live our lives?  How should we act? What kinds of persons should we be?  What should we care about?  These are among the central questions of philosophy because they are among the central questions of human existence.  This course explores answers that have been proposed by thinkers throughout history and across cultures.  (HU)

PHIL 7. Emerson, Thoreau, and Beyond: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

Emerson and Thoreau write to revive our dumb words and numb lives. Emerson tells us that what matters is not having lived, but living, not having read somebody's book, but thinking. And somehow all this wonderful excitement comes from creation, from becoming, and all becoming is becoming new. There is no unhappy creation.The literary power of Emerson and Thoreau, of Frederick Douglass, Margaret Fuller, and Walt Whitman, is widely recognized, but their philosophical vocation is still repressed. This introduction to philosophy will be through the doors offered by these American authors and their impact on other thinkers. (HU)

PHIL 8. (GCP 8) Ethics in Global Perspectives: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

Examination of  the moral perspectives of a variety of different ethical outlooks, including Euro-American, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, African, and Islamic traditions, and of serious moral problems arising from globalization, including the increasing gap between the rich so-called First World nations and the poor so-called Third World nations, global environmental degradation, war and terrorism. (HU)

PHIL 14.  Reasoning and Critical Thinking (4)

Most intellectual endeavors involve reasoning. Whether in everyday discussions about right and wrong, friendly political disagreements, ordinary explanations of natural phenomena, and short letters to editors, or in sophisticated legal debates, national political campaigns, and intricate scientific theories, reasons are constantly invoked to support or criticize claims and points of view. This course develops skills needed to reason well, to analyze and critique others' reasoning (or lack thereof), to distinguish reasoning from mere rhetoric, and to become a savvy consumer of information. (HU)

PHIL 15. Friendship: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

Because of the importance of friendship to happiness and a fulfilled human life, philosophers from ancient times to the present have devoted considerable attention to it. In this course we will read and discuss a variety of philosophical conceptions of friendship and its value. Among the philosophical classics to be considered are works by Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Augustine, Aquinas, Montaigne, Kant, Thoreau, and Kierkegaard, as well as several contemporary treatments of the subject. (HU)

PHIL 16. Free Will and Responsibility: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

Do we choose who we become as we mature, or is who we become foreordained? Are we born with a unique self, or is the self produced by our interaction with external forces? Are we free agents who can be held responsible for our actions, or is free will an illusion?  This course explores these questions and the implications of answers for moral, political, and social values. (HU)

PHIL 20. The Examined Life in Film and Literature: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

Socrates claimed that "the unexamined life is not worth living," and Western philosophers for 2400 year have taken that challenge to heart. But there are other ways of examining the human condition philosophically than in the writings of philosophers. This course uses works of literature (novels, plays, and poems) and films that address the same issues that Western philosophers have addressed and continued to address: the natures of truth, justice, the good, reality, the self, happines, the meaningfulness of life. (HU)

PHIL 23. Artists on Art: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

One of the peculiarities of the philosophical study of art (Aesthetics) is that philosophers ignore the writings of artists on art. This introduction to philosophy does not.  Aestheticians spend much of their time writing about what art is. Artists are more interested in what art does and how art does it, and those questions will be the focus of the course.  We will be reading the words and looking at the artwork of artists who might include: van Gogh, Cezanne, Madeline Gins, Picasso, Alberti, Hogarth, Mondrian, Kandinsky, Klee, Debussy, Leonardo, Le Corbusier, Ann Truit, Schoenberg, Tartovsky, Boccioni, Alison Knowles, Alan Kaprow, Laurie Anderson, Venturi and Scott Brown, Bacon, and others. (HU)

PHIL 24. Good, God, and Evil: An Introduction to Philosophy  (4)

The problem traditionally known as "theodicy" asks how God (Gr: theos) is related to justice (Gr: dike). If the world isn't perfectly good, very good, or even pretty good, how can it be that God, as the creator of the world, is both good and powerful: all-good (omnibenevolent) and all-powerful (omnipotent)?  We can solve the problem of God and evil by saying that God is not all that good or not all that powerful--and indeed, theologians and others have gone this route. But what if we don't want to relinquish God's goodness or His power?  What then can we say?  What have the great philosophers and religious thinkers said?  (HU)

PHIL 27. Beyond the Edge of Darkness: An Introduction to Philosophy (4)

One of the on-going concerns of philosophical reflections, both East and West, has been to provide an account of the existential landscape within which we find ourselves that offers an alternative to the circumstantial frustrations and tragedies with which our experience seems to confront us.  We will examine texts from a variety of trajectories and traditions, some of which seem designed to highlight our predicament, some of which seem designed to resolve it. (HU)

PHIL 100. (POLS 100) Introduction to Political Thought (4)

Some of the most significant ancient and modern political theorists: Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Marx, and others. Matthews (ND)

PHIL 101. (POLS 101) Ancient Political Heritage (4)

Important Political thinkers from the pre-Socratics to early, modern political theorists like Machiavelli. Matthews (SS)

PHIL 102. (POLS 102) Modern Political Heritage (4)

Begins where POLS 101 ends; from early modern theorists (e.g. Hobbes) up to contemporary thinkers (e.g. Marcuse). (SS)

PHIL 105. Ethics (4)

Examination of right and wrong, good and bad, from classic sources such as Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Mill and Nietzsche. (HU)

PHIL 114. Symbolic Logic (4)

A first course in logical theory, introducing the notions of logical consequence and proof, as well as related concepts such as consistency and contingency. Formal systems taught may include: term logic, sentence logic, and predicate logic. (MA)

PHIL 116. (HMS 116, REL 116) Bioethics (4)

Moral issues that arise in the context of health care and related biomedical fields in the United States today, examined in the light of the nature and foundation of moral rights and obligations. (HU)

PHIL 117. (AAS 117) Race and Philosophy (4)

An introduction to the philosophy born of struggles against racism and white supremacy. We will read the work of philosophers, mostly European, who quietly made modern racism possible by inventing the category of race, but we will concentrate on the work of philosophers, mostly of African descent, who for 200 years have struggled to force a philosophical critique of the category of race and the practice of white supremacy. (HU)

PHIL 120. Philosophy in Film (4)

This seminar course will explore a variety of themes, genres, and movements within cinema from a philosophical perspective.  Regular screenings of films from silent era to present.  Content may vary depending upon instructor.  Course may be repeated for credit if the content varies substantially. (HU)

PHIL 121. Philosophy in Literature (4)

Exploration of philosophical themes through the study of literature and film. Authors may include: Homer, Euripides, Dante, Rimbaud, Sterne, George Eliot, Valery, Joyce, Melville, T.S. Eliot, Rilke, Proust, Musil, Stevens, Cummings, Camus, Sartre, Beckett, Morrison, Barthelme. (HU)

PHIL 122. Philosophy of Law (4)

Analysis of the conceptual foundations of our legal system. Special attention devoted to the nature of law and legal obligation, liberty and privacy in constitutional litigation, justice and contractual obligation, theories of punishment in criminal law, and the nature and scope of responsibility in criminal law. (HU)

PHIL 123. Aesthetics (4)

Theories, classical and modern, of the nature of beauty and the aesthetic experience. Practical criticism of some works of art, and examination of analogies between arts, and between art and nature. (HU)

PHIL 124. (REL 124) Philosophy of Religion (4)

Critical examination, from a philosophical perspective, of some fundamental problems of religion, the nature of religious experience and belief, reason and revelation, the existence and nature of God, the problem of evil, and religious truth. (HU)

PHIL 125. Social and Political Philosophy (4)

Examination of visions of good social life and values that should shape society so that people are able to live good lives together. Issues covered may include the nature of freedom, how the facts of gender, race, class, ethnic, and cultural differences should be taken into account in social and political relations, the limits of religious tolerance, war, world hunger. (HU)

PHIL 127. Existentialism (4)

Investigation of the historical development of existentialism from its origins in the 19th century (Kierkegaard, Nietzsche) through its marriage to phenomenology in the early 20th (Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty), and out the other side as a vigorous dimension of much literary, psychological, and artistic work produced in the last 50 years. (HU)

PHIL 128. Philosophy of Science (4)

Introduction to the structure and methods of scientific investigation. The nature of explanation, confirmation, and falsification. Scientific progress: What is it? Would it be suffocated by obedience to completely rational methods? (HU)

PHIL 129. (REL 129) Jewish Philosophy (4)

Consideration of how major Jewish thinkers from the first to 20th centuries confronted questions at the intersection of religion and philosophy: the existence and nature of God, free will, evil, divine providence, miracles, creation, revelation, and religious obligation. (HU)

PHIL 131. (CLSS 131) Ancient Philosophy (4)

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in the classical world, from the pre-Socratics through Aristotle, with emphasis on the origins of the western philosophical traditions in ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology. (HU)

PHIL 132. (CLSS 132) Hellenistic Philosophy (4)

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in post-Aristotelian Greek and Roman philosophy from the fourth century B.C. to the third century A.D. Areas of focus may include epicureanism, stoicism, academic and pyrrohnian scepticism, and neoplatonism. (HU)

PHIL 133. Medieval Philosophy (4)

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in western philosophy from the fourth to 14th centuries. Attention will be given to the relation between developments in medieval philosophy and major currents in ancient and modern thought. Figures may include Augustine, Eriugena, Anselm, Aquinas, Ockham, and Nicholas of Autrecourt. (HU)

PHIL 135. Modern Philosophy (4)

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in 17th and 18th century European philosophy with particular emphasis on developments in epistemology and metaphysics. Attention will be given to the relation of the “modern period” to developments in late medieval philosophy and the rise of the experimental sciences. Figures may include Descartes, Leibniz, Locke, Hume, and Kant. (HU)

PHIL 137. Nineteenth Century Philosophy (4)

Historical survey of selected texts and issues in 19th century philosophy.  Areas of focus may include post-Kantian idealism; period-specific critiques of religion, politics, and morality; theories of history; the origins of utilitarianism, pragmatism, existentialism, and mathematical logic; etc.  Figures may include Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Mill, Peirce, Frege, Nietzsche, James, etc. (HU)

PHIL 139. Contemporary Philosophy (4)

Philosophical thought from the late19th century to the present; pragmatism, linguistic analysis, existentialism, and Marxism. Truth and knowledge, values and moral judgment, meaning, the place of the individual in the physical world and society, and the impact of the scientific method upon all of these. (HU)

PHIL 140. (ASIA 140) Eastern Philosophy (4)

Survey of selected texts and issues in the eastern philosophical traditions. Attention will be given to the development and interrelations of these traditions as well as a comparison of western and eastern treatments of selected issues. Areas of focus may include Confucianism, Taoism, and Zen Buddhism. (HU)

PHIL 141. (REL 141) Islamic Philosophy (4)

An introduction to Islamic philosophy in the medieval era, the Golden Age of Islamic civilization. The course focuses on primary sources. Readings include both expositions and critiques of philosophical doctrines and arguments, selected from the writings of several Islamic philosophers including al-Kindi, al-Razi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), al-Ghazali, Ibn Tufayl, and Ibn Rushd (Averroes). (HU)

PHIL 145.  Philosophy and Technology (4)

This course is an exploration of questions of metaphysics and morality in the digital age. Are new technologies changing our views of metaphysics (what's real) and morality (what's right)? Can classical and contemporary philosophical theories help us think more clearly and make better choices when faced with new technologies? To help answer these questions, students will read a variety of philosophical works that invite critical reflection on a broad array of topics at the intersection of philosophy and technology. (HU)

PHIL 146.  Philosophy of Sex and Gender  (4)

An examination of concepts, values, and assumptions relevant to sex and gender in our diverse society, investigating how they affect our lives in both concrete and symbolic ways. Questions to be considered include: What is it to be a women or a man, or to be feminine or masculine?  How are sex (a matter of biology) and gender (a matter of social roles and status) related?  How are sex and gender related to power and oppression or discrimination? How do sex and gender intersect with sexuality, race, class, and religion?  Special attention will be paid to how gendered assumptions color our understanding of knowledge production, experiences of embodiment and emotion, public and private activities. and the nature of moral decision-making.  (HU)

PHIL 150.  Philosophy of Education (4)

A historical survey of major views on the meaning and function of education, this course will address questions such as, What is the role of education in individual human development? What are the goals of education? What are the ideal approaches to meet those goals? What is the relationship between one's view of learning and one's view of teaching? What is the relationship between educational institutions and the state? Does everyone need the same type of education? (HU)

PHIL 180.  Special Topics (1-4)

Selected topics of philosophy not included in other course. Course may be repeated. (HU)

PHIL 205. Contemporary Ethics (4)

Examination of significant questions addressed by contemporary moral philosophers. Topics vary, but might include: What is a good person? Can a woman be good in the same way as a man? Is morality relative or absolute? Is morality all that important? Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.  Consent of the instructor. (HU)

PHIL 206. Figures/Themes in Ethics (4)

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus on a major figure in ethics (e.g. Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Mill, etc.) or on a theme, such as relativism, free will, the intersection of religion and ethics, or war. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher.  May be taken more than once for credit. (HU)

PHIL 214. Topics in Philosophical Logic (4)

Topics may include the many systems of non-classical logic, truth theory, the impact of incompleteness and undecidability results on philosophy, the foundational projects of various philosopher/mathematicians, or the work of an important figure in the history of philosophical logic. Consent of instructor required. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (MA)

PHIL 217. Figures/Themes in Race and Philosophy (4)

An investigation of a significant figure in the philosophy of race (e.g. David Walker, W.E.B. DuBois, Alain Locke, Marcus Garvey, Jean-Paul Sartre, Franz Fanon, Cornel West) and/or an investigation of a significant theme in the philosophy of race (Racial Exploitation, Colonialism, Negritude, Afrocentrism, Black Nationalism, African Philosophy, Black Athena). Content Varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 220. Ways of Knowing (4)

Recent work in theories of knowledge. Questions addressed include:What is knowledge? How does it differ from mere opinion and belief?  If you can’t know whether you are dreaming, how can you know you have two hands? Can we know anything at all? Does knowledge require answers to all possible doubts or only all reasonable doubts? How should we determine the horizon of the reasonable—psychologically or philosophically? Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. (HU)

PHIL 221.  Reflecting on Reality (4)

Metaphysics, the study of the basic structure of reality, seeks both to determine at a fundamental level what exists and what it means for something to be real, and to understand the nature of what exists, for example, whether what exists is mind-independent or depends on human thought, and whether different concepts, categories, or perspectives used to describe reality generate different realities. Topics might include social constructionism, universals and properties, identity and individuation, causation, necessity and possibility, realism and antirealism.  Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. (HU)

PHIL 223. Figures/Themes in Aesthetics (4)

An investigation of a significant figure in aesthetics (e.g., Burke, Kant, Hegel, Benjamin, Adorno, Goodman, Kivy, Derrida, Deleuze) and/or an investigation of a significant theme in aesthetics (e.g., sensuality, representation, politics, expressionism, cinematic gore, minimalism, architecture, postmodernism). Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU))

PHIL 224. (REL 224) Topics in the Philosophy of Religion (4)

Selected problems and issues in the philosophy of religion. Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 226. (WGSS 226) Feminism and Philosophy (4)

Analysis of the nature, sources, and consequences of the oppression and exploitation of women and justification of strategies for liberation. Topics include women’s nature and human nature, sexism, femininity, sexuality, reproduction, mothering. Prerequisite: One HU designated course in philosophy, or one course in Women, Gender, and Sexuality Studies. (HU))

PHIL 228. Topics in the Philosophy of Science (4)

Themes in the natural, life and social sciences. May be repeated for credit as topic varies. Prerequisite: Phil 128 or consent of instructor. (HU)

PHIL 231. (CLSS 231) Figures/Themes in Ancient Philosophy (4)

This seminar course will involve indepth focus upon a major ancient thinker (e.g. Plato, Aristotle, Sextus Empiricus, Plotinus, etc.) or the classical treatment of a particular theme (e.g. “human nature,” “the good life,” ethical or political theory, etc.). Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 232. (CLSS 232) Figures/Themes in Hellenistic Philosophy (4)

This seminar course will involve an in-depth focus upon a major movement in Hellenistic Philosophy (roughly 4th century B.C.E. to the 2nd Century C.E.) such as Epicureanism, Stoicism, Ancient Scepticism, or Neoplatonism, or the Hellenistic treatment of a particular theme (e.g. freedom from anxiety, the nature of the Cosmos and our place within it, or human nature). Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 233. Figures/Themes in Medieval Philosophy (4)

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major medieval thinker (e.g. Augustine, Boethius, Maimonides, Bonaventure, Dante, etc.) or the medieval treatment of a particular theme (e.g. the relation of “will” and “intellect,” the “problem of universals,” ethical or political theory, etc.). Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 235. Figures/Themes in Modern Philosophy (4)

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major 17th or 18th century thinker (e.g. Descartes, Leibniz, Berkeley, Kant, etc.) or the modern treatment of a particular theme (e.g. the nature of “ideas,” the roles of experience, reason, and revelation, ethical or political theory, etc.). Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 237. Figures/Themes in Nineteenth Century Philosophy (4)

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major 19th century thinker (e.g. Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Mill, Peirce, Frege, Nietzsche, James, etc.) or the 19th century treatment of a particular theme (e.g. the end of history, revolution, nihilism, authenticity, origins of mathematical logic, infinity, etc.). Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 239. Figures/Themes in Contemporary Philosophy (4)

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major contemporary thinker (e.g. Russell, Whitehead, Husserl, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Quine, Habermas, Rawls, Rorty, Derrida, Davidson, Foucault, Deleuze, Irigaray, etc.) or the contemporary treatment of a particular theme (e.g. logical positivism, naturalism, non-foundationalism, existential phenomenology, return to virtue, neopragmatism, hermeneutics, post-structuralism, postmodernism, neokantian political theory, the politics of identity, etc.). Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 240. (ASIA 240) Figures/Themes in Eastern Philosophy (4)

This seminar course will involve in-depth focus upon a major figure in Eastern thought or upon the Eastern treatment of a particular theme or set of themes. Content varies. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. May be taken more than once for credit as topic varies. (HU)

PHIL 241. (REL 241) Critics of Religion (4)

In recent years, with the resurgence of religion as a significant political force globally, the claims of religion have been subjected to renewed scrutiny and critique. A wide array of scientists, philosophers, and social critics (e.g., Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennet, Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens) have challenged religion’s basic claims and provide alternative rational, scientifically grounded explanations. However, in many instances, these books fall short of the powerful critiques, previously formulated by philosophers such as Baruch Spinoza and Friedrich Nietzsche, or those of contemporary French philosophers Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze. In this seminar, we shall explore in-depth the critiques of religion contained in the writings of Spinoza, Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, Foucault and Deleuze. Students will have an opportunity to examine one or more of the recent critiques of religion in light of the arguments of these philosophers. (HU)

PHIL 250. (COGS 250) Philosophy of Mind (4)

An exploration of the mind-body problem. Are the body and mind distinct substances (dualism); or is there only body (materialism); or only mind (idealism)? Other views to be considered include behaviorism (the view that behavior can be explained without recourse to mental states), and the view that the mind is a complex computer. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. (HU)

PHIL 260. Making Sense of Words (4)

Issues in the philosophy of language, including analysis of the nature of the relation between the words we use and the world in which we live. We will aim to understand how words make sense and how we make sense of ourselves and the world through words. We will examine such central notions as truth, meaning, and reference, as understood in historically influential philosophical theories of language. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. (HU)

PHIL 265. Philosophy of Mathematics (4)

A survey of the main philosophical views on the nature of mathematics and mathematical knowledge, including the classical debate between the logicist, formalist, and intuitionist schools, and the recent debate between realism and antirealism. Some of the material makes use of logical theory. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. (HU)

PHIL 271. Independent Study (1-4)

Individual philosophical investigation of an author, book, or topic designed in collaboration with a philosophy professor. Tutorial meetings; substantial written work.  Prerequisite: One HU- designated course in philosophy at 100-level or higher. Consent of faculty instructor and may be repeated more than once for credit. (ND)

PHIL 292. Philosophical Methods (2)

Methods of and approaches to philosophical research, reasoning, and writing, as preparation for senior thesis.  Open only to junior philosophy majors.  Department permission required. (HU)

PHIL 300. Apprentice Teaching (1-4) (ND)

Department permission required.

PHIL 303. (MATH 303) Mathematical Logic (3-4)

Detailed proofs for the basic mathematical results relating the syntax and semantics of first-order logic (predicate logic): the Soundness and Completeness (and Compactness) Theorems, followed by a brief exposition of the celebrated limitative results of Gödel, Turing, and Church on incompleteness and undecidability. The material is conceptually rigorous and mathematically mature; the necessary background is a certain degree of mathematical sophistication or a basic knowledge of symbolic logic. Prerequisite: PHIL 144 or permission of the instructor. (MA)

PHIL 347. (REL 347, AMST 347) American Religious Thinkers (4)

An examination of the writings of key figures in the history of American religious thought (such as Edwards, Emerson, Bushnell, Peirce, James, Royce, Dewey and the Niebuhrs). Attention will be directed both to the historical reception of these writings and to their contemporary significance. Prerequisite: One HU-designated course in Philosophy at 100-level or higher. (HU))

PHIL 364. (POLS 364) Issues in Contemporary Political Philosophy (4)

Selected topics in contemporary political philosophy, such as the Frankfurt school, existentialism, legitimation, authenticity, participatory democracy, and the alleged decline of political philosophy. May be repeated for credit with consent of the political science chair. (SS)

PHIL 367. (POLS 367) American Political Thought (4)

Critical examination of American political thought from the founding of the Republic to the present. Writings from Madison, Hamilton, and Jefferson to Emma Goldman, Mary Daly, Malcolm X, Henry Kariel, and others will be discussed. (SS)

PHIL 371. Advanced Independent Study (1-4)

Individual philosophical investigation of an author, book, or topic designed in collaboration with a philosophy professor. Tutorial meetings; substantial written work.  Prerequisite: One HU designated philosophy course at 200-level or higher, and consent of instructor.  May be repeated more than once for credit. (ND)

PHIL 390. Senior Thesis (2)

The first part of two semesters of intensive research and writing supervised by the philosophy faculty thesis advisor in anticipation of completing a senior thesis in philosophy. Individual tutorials; substantial written work. Senior standing as a philosophy major and permission of the philosophy faculty thesis advisor required. (HU)

PHIL 391. Senior Thesis (4)

Continuation and completion of PHIL 390 under the guidance of the thesis advisor. Prerequisites: PHIL 390; permission of the thesis advisor required. (HU)