Mark H. Bickhard, Ph.D.
Lehigh University Philosophy - Mark H. Bickhard
Henry R. Luce Professor in Cognitive Robotics and the Philosophy of Knowledge
Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science, Epistemology

Professor Bickhard’s extensive interest includes the Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science, and Epistemology. For further information, CV, and publications please visit Professor Bickhard's personal website

Recent Publications

Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).  How to Operationalize a Person.  New Ideas in Psychology, 44, 2-6.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).  The Emergence of Persons.  In Durt, C., Fuchs, T., Tewes, C.  (2017).  Embodiment, Enaction, and Culture.  (201-213).  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Inter- and En- Activism: Some thoughts and comparisons.  New Ideas in Psychology, 41, 23-32.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Probabilities over What?  Human Development, 59, 34-36.        DOI: 10.1159/000447026

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Emergence, Action, and Representation.  IEEE, CIS, CDS Newsletter: The Newsletter of the Technical Committee on Cognitive and Developmental Systems, 13(1), 15-16

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Metatheoretical Issues in Personality Psychology.  In Hal Miller (Ed.)  SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology.  (549-551).  London: Sage.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  The Anticipatory Brain: Two Approaches.  In V. C. Müller  (Ed.)  (2016).  Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence.  (259-281).  Switzerland: Springer.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Cognition and the Brain (abstract).  In Gershenson, C., Froese, T., Siqueiros, J. M., Aguilar, W., Isquierdo, E. J., Sayama, H.  Proceedings of the Artificial Life Conference 2016, Cancun, Mexico, 6 July 2016, pg. 17.  Cambridge, MA: MIT press.


Bickhard, M. H. (2015). Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes II: Central Nervous System Functional Macro-architecture. Axiomathes. DOI 10.1007/s10516-015-9276-9

Bickhard, M. H. (2015). Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes I: Central Nervous System Functional Micro-architecture. Axiomathes. DOI 10.1007/s10516-015-9275-x

Bickhard, M. H. (2015). The Social-Interactive Ontology of Language. Ecological Psychology, 27(3), 265-277. DOI: 10.1080/10407413.2015.1068656

Bickhard, M. H. (2015). The Metaphysics of Emergence. Kairos, 12, 7-25

Bickhard, M. H. (2014). What Could Cognition Be, If not Computation … or Connectionism, or Dynamic Systems? Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 35(1), 53-66. DOI -10.1037/a0038059

Bickhard, M. H. (2013). Action, Anticipation, and Construction: The Cognitive Core. Constructivist Foundations, 9(1),

Bickhard, M. H. (2013). The Creativity of Development and the Development of Creativity. Papers from the AAAI Spring Symposium Technical Report SS-13-02: Cognitive Development: A Perspective from Artificial Creativity,Developmental AI, and Robotics. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. Palo Alto, California: AAAI Press

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H. (2013). Beyond Principles and Programs: An Action Framework for Modeling Development. Human Development, 56, 171-177.

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H. (2013). The Pendulum Still Swings. Cognitive Development, 28, 164-174

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H. (2013). Stepping Off The Pendulum: Why Only an Action-Based Approach Can Transcend the Nativist-Empiricist Debate. Cognitive Development 28, 96-133